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A blog: " De Borda abroad."  From Belfast to Beijing and beyond... and back. Starting in Vienna with the TEDx talk, I go by bus and/or train for more debates in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Istanbul, Tbilisi, Yerevan and Tehran, before flying - sorry about that - to Urumqi in Xīnjiāng, followed by more debates in Beijing, Tianjin, Hong Kong and Taiwan... but not in Pyongyang. Then back via Mongolia (where I was an election observer last year) and Moscow (where I worked in the '80s).

I have my little fold-up Brompton with me - surely the best way of exploring any new city! So I fly hardly at all; I go by train, boat or bus if possible, and then cycle wherever in each new venue; and all with just one plastic water bottle... or that was the intention!

The story is on:  https://debordaabroad.wordpress.com/2017/09/07/de-borda-abroad/


Inclusive voting app 



(Currently under re-construction.)


The Hospital for Incurable Protestants

The Mémoire of a Collapsed Catholic

 This is the story of a pacifist in a conflict zone, in Northern Ireland and the Balkans.  Only in e-format, but only £5.15.  Available from Amazon.



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The de Borda Institute aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice.

This applies specifically to decision-making, be it for the electorate in regional/national polls, for their elected representatives in councils and parliaments, for members of a local community group, for members of a company board, for members of a co-operative, and so on.




The director alongside the statue of Jean-Charles de Borda, capitaine et savant, in l’École Navale in Brest, 24.9.2010. Photo by Gwenaelle Bichelot. 

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Welcome to the home page of the de Borda Institute, a Northern Ireland-based international organisation (an NGO) which aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice. For more information use the menu options above or feel free to contact the organisation's headquarters. If you want to check the meaning of any of the terms used, then by all means have a look at this glossary.

As shown in these attachments, there are many voting procedures for use in decision-making and even more electoral systems.  This is because, in decision-making, there is usually only one outcome; but with some electoral systems, as in any proportional ones, there can be several winners.  Sometimes, for any one voters' profile - that is, the set of all their preferences - the outcome of any count may well depend on the voting procedure used.  In this very simple example of a few voters voting on just four options, and in these two hypothetical examples on five, (word document) or (power-point) in which a few cast their preferences on five options, the profiles are analysed according to different methodologies, and the winner could be any one of all the options.  Yet all of these methodologies are called democratic!  Extraordinary!

FAQ on > Voting Systems > What is the Quota Borda System (QBS)?

Search the FAQ for entries containing:

QBS is an electoral system for use whenever an electorate is electing more than one person. In a general election, it should be used in multi-member constituencies of about 5 seats, if need be with a regional/national top-up.

QBS consists of a quota element, added to an MBC. In a 5-seater constituency, a quota is one sixth of the valid vote, plus 1.

The ballot paper looks something like this.

The count proceeds in stages:

Stage I: if any candidate gains a quota of 1st preferences, he/she is deemed elected.

Stage II: if any pair of candidates gains 2 quotas, both candidates are deemed elected.

Stage III: if any triplet of candidates gains 3 quotas, all three candidates are deemed elected.

Stage IV: if any triplet of candidates gain 2 quotas, the 2 candidates with the highest mbc scores are deemed elected.
Then if seats are still to be filled:

Stage V: if any pair of candidates gains a quota, the candidate with the higher MBC score is deemed elected.

Stage VI: if any triplet of candidates gains the quota , the candidate with the highest MBC score is deemed elected.
And finally, if seats still remain to be filled

Stage VII: those candidates with the highest MBC scores are deemed elected.

Last updated on March 21, 2013 by Deborda