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Mulit-option and Preferential Referendums

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Inclusive voting app 




The Hospital for Incurable Protestants

The Mémoire of a Collapsed Catholic

 This is the story of a pacifist in a conflict zone, in Northern Ireland and the Balkans.  Only in e-format, but only £5.15.  Available from Amazon.



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The de Borda Institute aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice.

This applies specifically to decision-making, be it for the electorate in regional/national polls, for their elected representatives in councils and parliaments, for members of a local community group, for members of a company board, for members of a co-operative, and so on.




The director alongside the statue of Jean-Charles de Borda, capitaine et savant, in l’École Navale in Brest, 24.9.2010. Photo by Gwenaelle Bichelot. 

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Won by One

Welcome to the home page of the de Borda Institute, a Northern Ireland-based international organisation (an NGO) which aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice. For more information use the menu options above or feel free to contact the organisation's headquarters. If you want to check the meaning of any of the terms used, then by all means have a look at this glossary.

As shown in these attachments, there are many decision-making and even more electoral systems.  Sometimes, for any one voters' profile - that is, the set of all their preferences - the outcome of any count may well depend on the voting procedure used.  In this very simple example of a few voters voting on just four options, and in these two hypothetical examples on five, (word document) or (power-point) in which a few cast their preferences on five options, the profiles are analysed according to different methodologies, and the winner could be any one of all the options.  Yet all of these methodologies are called democratic!  Extraordinary!


From Majority Rule to Inclusive Politics, (Springer, 2016) was launched in Queen's University Belfast on 10th Feb 2016, with Prof. John Barry, Dr. Katy Hayward, Prof. John Morison and Tommy Sands; and in Dublin, with Prof. John Baker, Cllr. Dermot Lacey, Dr Vanessa Liston, Andy Pollak and Tommy again, on 23rd Feb.  Thus was just 3 days before the general election.  

Accordingly, the de  Borda institute and the Irish Times held a seminar on 23rd April on all-party governance.  A report is due shortly.


A new app - Decision-Maker - will enable persons various - committee members, elected politicians, whomsoever - to take decisions by multi-option voting on their smart phones.  It will be demonstrated at the above seminar.

Northern Ireland

The director's autobiography - The Hospital for Incurable Protestants, the Mémoire of a Collapsed Catholic - had a mini-launch in July 2014 with Tommy Sands; a bigger one is is the pipeline! 


The director has been invited to edit a special section of the International Journal of Human Rights on the theme of Democratic Rights: the rights (and wrongs) of majority rule and self-determination.