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A blog: " De Borda abroad."  A journey to China. Starting in Vienna with a TEDx talk, I go by bus and/or train for more debates in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Istanbul, Tbilisi, Yerevan and Tehran, before flying - sorry about that - to Urumqi in Xīnjiāng. But in every city, I have my little fold-up Brompton - the best way of exploring any new venue! It's all on:




Mulit-option and Preferential Referendums

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Inclusive voting app 




The Hospital for Incurable Protestants

The Mémoire of a Collapsed Catholic

 This is the story of a pacifist in a conflict zone, in Northern Ireland and the Balkans.  Only in e-format, but only £5.15.  Available from Amazon.



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The de Borda Institute aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice.

This applies specifically to decision-making, be it for the electorate in regional/national polls, for their elected representatives in councils and parliaments, for members of a local community group, for members of a company board, for members of a co-operative, and so on.




The director alongside the statue of Jean-Charles de Borda, capitaine et savant, in l’École Navale in Brest, 24.9.2010. Photo by Gwenaelle Bichelot. 

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Won by One

Welcome to the home page of the de Borda Institute, a Northern Ireland-based international organisation (an NGO) which aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice. For more information use the menu options above or feel free to contact the organisation's headquarters. If you want to check the meaning of any of the terms used, then by all means have a look at this glossary.

As shown in these attachments, there are many decision-making and even more electoral systems.  Sometimes, for any one voters' profile - that is, the set of all their preferences - the outcome of any count may well depend on the voting procedure used.  In this very simple example of a few voters voting on just four options, and in these two hypothetical examples on five, (word document) or (power-point) in which a few cast their preferences on five options, the profiles are analysed according to different methodologies, and the winner could be any one of all the options.  Yet all of these methodologies are called democratic!  Extraordinary!

Details of the Quota Borda System can be found on http://www.deborda.org/faq/voting-systems/what-is-the-quota-borda-system-qbs.html

The number of stages in the count can vary, as follows:

If electing only 2 persons, those who gain a quota of 1st preferences are elected {stage (i)} and, if seats still remain to be filled, then it is for those candidates with the highest MBC scores, {stages (v), (vi) and (vii)}.

If electing 3 or 4 persons, then stage (ii) is added, so that those pairs of candidates with 2 quotas of 1st/2nd preferences are elected, and then, as above, {stages (v), (vi) and (vii)}.

If electing 5 or more, then stages (iii) and (iv) are added, to take in triplets of candidates gaining 3 quotas.

For details of pairs and triplets, see Designing an All-Inclusive Democracy by Peter Emeson, Springer, 2007, pp 44-5.