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Mulit-option and Preferential Referendums

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The Hospital for Incurable Protestants

The Mémoire of a Collapsed Catholic

 This is the story of a pacifist in a conflict zone, in Northern Ireland and the Balkans.  Only in e-format, but only £5.15.  Available from Amazon.



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The de Borda Institute aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice.

This applies specifically to decision-making, be it for the electorate in regional/national polls, for their elected representatives in councils and parliaments, for members of a local community group, for members of a company board, for members of a co-operative, and so on.




The director alongside the statue of Jean-Charles de Borda, capitaine et savant, in l’École Navale in Brest, 24.9.2010. Photo by Gwenaelle Bichelot. 

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Won by One

Welcome to the home page of the de Borda Institute, a Northern Ireland-based international organisation (an NGO) which aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice. For more information use the menu options above or feel free to contact the organisation's headquarters. If you want to check the meaning of any of the terms used, then by all means have a look at this glossary.

As shown in these attachments, there are many decision-making and even more electoral systems.  Sometimes, for any one voters' profile - that is, the set of all their preferences - the outcome of any count may well depend on the voting procedure used.  In this very simple example of a few voters voting on just four options, and in these two hypothetical examples on five, (word document) or (power-point) in which a few cast their preferences on five options, the profiles are analysed according to different methodologies, and the winner could be any one of all the options.  Yet all of these methodologies are called democratic!  Extraordinary!

FAQ on > Voting Systems (4 entries)

There are three Borda methodologies: the MBC is used in decision-making; QBS is an electoral system; and the matrix vote is used in governance.
Search the FAQ for entries containing:
  • Voting systems may be used in decision-making and/or in elections . In decision-making, the outcome is usually a single decision (or social choice), or a single complex (as in a budget), ...
  • What is a modified Borda count? The modified Borda count (MBC) is a preference voting procedure by which is identified that option which gains the highest average preference ...
  • QBS is an electoral system for use whenever an electorate is electing more than one person. In a general election, it should be used in multi-member constituencies of about 5 seats, ...
  • The matrix vote is used whenever a certain body - a parliament, an assembly, or any business, trades union, political party or community association at its AGM - wishes to elect ...